Navigating the Legal and Ethical Terrain of Artificial Intelligence in Enhancing Patient Safety in Nigeria


  • Dr. Dorcas A. Akinpelu KolaDaisi University (lbadan, Nigeria).
  • Prof. Simisola O. Akintola University of Ibadan (Ibdadan, Nigeria).



Algorithm Bias, Artificial Intelligence, Legal and Ethical Ramifications, Medical Errors, Patient Safety


The emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) significantly impacts the understanding of medical errors, minimizes their occurrence, and provides contextual solutions for patient safety in Nigeria.Given the country's expanding population and constrained healthcare resources, the potential significance of AI in enhancing patient safety in Nigeria cannot be overstated. There is a rapid trend to integrate AI into Nigeria's healthcare system, however, this raises concerns about algorithm bias and privacy. This study explores the ethical and legal implications of deploying AI for patient safety in Nigeria and assesses how the existing Nigerian legal frameworks address these concerns. This research shows that although bias and discrimination are generally prohibited by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and other legal instruments, algorithmic bias which arises from the use of AI is not catered for by these laws. In addition, despite current privacy and confidentiality safeguards, AI in healthcare presents unique and novel challenges that the legislation does not yet address. Therefore, developing a new legal and governance structure to address both present and prospective challenges of AI in the health sector is extremely useful.

Author Biographies

Dr. Dorcas A. Akinpelu, KolaDaisi University (lbadan, Nigeria).

A lawyer and researcher with a focus on health law and bioethics. Her works focus on leveraging legal and systemic approaches in solving emerging medico-legal issues, including reducing medical errors and advancing patient safety in Nigeria.

Prof. Simisola O. Akintola, University of Ibadan (Ibdadan, Nigeria).

Professor of Bioethics and Health Law at the Faculty of Law University of Ibadan. Her research is motivated by the yawning gap between technology, medicine and the existing regulatory framework. Consistent in her research is the consideration of the peculiarity of the people she advocates for.



How to Cite

Akinpelu, D. A., & Akintola, S. O. (2023). Navigating the Legal and Ethical Terrain of Artificial Intelligence in Enhancing Patient Safety in Nigeria. Journal of Intellectual Property and Information Technology Law (JIPIT), 3(1), 169–200.